A warehouse for my lectures, essays, and scribbles
Commenting on the following āyah:
<و إذ قال إبراهيم لأبيه و قومه إنني برآء مما تعبدون إلا الذي فطرني فإنه سيهدين و جعلها كلمة باقية في عقبه لعلهم يرجعون>
‘Allāmah Muḥammad Shafī’a (May Allāh have mercy on him) states, “This teaches the ummah to make as much effort as possible to rectify their children and progeny, and ensure that they remain Muslim.” He then goes on to list various means of doing this such as: giving parting advice (at the time of death), ensuring that knowledge of the religion is passed down to one’s progeny, and earnestly supplicating to Allah.
Pointing to the importance of this last item, he quotes Shaykh Abdul-Wahhāb al-Sh’arānī, “The most effective way of spiritual rectification in one’s children is the parent’s supplication that they will be spiritually upright and protected from corruption,” and then goes on to write, “I only draw attention to this because of the widespread negligence of it in our times. And Allāh is the one who gives Ṭawfīq.” –Aḥkāmal-Qurān Vol: 4, Page: 173
“The prohibition of economic collusion by businessmen is another law. This collusion also places the arrangement of prices in the hands of oligopolies and upsets the natural order. The fuqahā clearly state that businessmen will not be left to enter into partnerships amongst themselves so that they can control prices. See the chapter of division in al-Hidāyah.
Whenever these [individuals] control prices it will be permissible for the Islāmic government to intervene in the market by fixing prices until it returns to its original [state]. [This is] mentioned by the fuqahā in their books.
Other laws are that of ẓakāh, charity, udhiyah, the expiations, maintenance [of those in ones responsibility], and inheritance. [By means of these] excess riches are directed away from the wealthy towards the destitute in society. This is how the door of stockpiling and monopoly are blocked in Islām, while the doors of spending are opened. Its wisdom has been indicated to in the Noble Qurān when it states, “So that wealth does not exist solely amongst the rich.”
In general, Islām respects the freedom of the individual up to a certain limit, however it gives preference to the freedom of society. It wants the natural force of supply and demand to be operative. It wants to make the market free to follow its natural course, and [stands as] an obstacle in the way of monopolies which place the reins of the market in the hands of a special class and cancel the effectiveness of supply and demand.
For this reason, it has enacted laws such as the prohibition of various commercial activities and permitted the Islāmic government to intervene in the market whenever it sees monopolies appearing.”-ṬakmilahFaṭḥ al-Mulhim
“And those are the times which We rotate among the people.”
(Sūrah Ālī cImrān, Āyah: 140)
We begin in the name of Allāh, the Mighty, to Whom belongs all praise, and Who gives dominion and power to whomsoever He wishes. We ask that He send blessings and mercy in abundance upon the leader of the Children of Ādam, and upon his family, his companions, and those who follow them in goodness until the Day of Judgement.
One of the special characteristics of the Prophet ﷺ is that he was sent, not just to his people, or his family, but to every single human and jinn to come until the Day of Judgement. To this end, he trained his companions, may Allāh be pleased with them. Lit up with the nūr obtained from spending time with the beloved of Allāh, those blessed individuals went forth into the world in order to show humanity how to live in such a manner that would be of benefit to them in this temporary life as well as the everlasting one to come after death.
Fourteen years after the Prophet ﷺ migrated from Makkah to Madīna, Ribcīy ibn cĀmir, may Allāh be pleased with him, would inform Rustum:
“Allāh deputed us to bring out whomsoever He wishes from the worship of other slaves to the worship of Allāh, from the narrowness of the world to its vastness, and from the tyranny of other ways of life to the justice of Islām. Thus, He sent us with His dīn to His creation so that we would call them to Him.”
From the lands of the Persians and Romans, from France to China, from India to Italy, from Spain to Sumatra, spiritual and worldly benefit gushed forth as the radiance of Islām and the Muslims spread into the world. Deeply concerned with the worship of Allāh, they built masājid that were hubs in which worship took place alongside spiritual reformation and teaching.
Many of these old masājid, despite being far from the Kacbah, have been found to point towards the qiblah, something which is due, in part, to the Muslim’s development of Trigonometry, all of which was done in order to ensure they were praying in the correct direction no matter where they might find themselves. From their ranks emerged people of piety like Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, people of justice like Shurayḥ al-Qādhī, and brilliant minds like Abū Ḥanīfah (May Allāh have mercy on them all).
This same dispersal of benefit occurred when merchants and traveling scholars crossed the Sahara into West Africa, spreading Islām as they moved into Senegal and other areas of sub-Saharan Africa. During the course of their business transactions they impressed the inhabitants of West Africa by their manners and trustworthiness due to which many entered Islām. Furthermore, amongst those merchants were Muslims who were also learned, and when these individuals settled somewhere they would establish halaqah where they would teach Qur’ān, etc. and invite people to Islām; because of this Islām spread out from trading centers and cities into the more distant areas of West Africa.
These merchants intermarried with the local women, brought more culamā to teach, especially as the number of Muslims increased, and sponsored the best students amongst the locals to go study in the famous schools of North Africa and Egypt so that they would return to be the leaders in their land.
Amongst the states and lands which the merchants spread into was the kingdom of Ghana which Ibn Khaldūn says was the greatest kingdom they came across. The capital of this kingdom consisted of two cities [i.e. al-Ghābah and Kūmbī Ṣāliḥ] situated on the banks of a river. At its height, the Muslim section of this twin city would house imams, mu’adhdhin, as well as jurists and scholars. Within its walls sat twelve masājid, one of which was used for jumcah. Around the Muslim section were sweet wells which they drank from and used to water their crops. Houses made of bricks and the wood of the acacia tree occupied the six miles of intervening space between the two cities.
The non-Muslim section also possessed a masjid that was situated not too far from the king’s court of justice. Even though the king was a non-Muslim, his interpreters, the official in charge of his treasury, and majority of his ministers were Muslim. Along with this, the king had exempted the Muslims from the customary greeting of kneeling before him and throwing dirt on their heads as his other subjects did. Unfortunately, when the Ṣūṣū invaded a weakened Ghana in 1240 C.E. (circa 637/638 A.H.), the Muslims of that kingdom were forced to flee.
The Ṣūṣū under the leadership of Sumanguru (Soumangourou), would in turn be defeated by the founder of the Empire of Mali, Mārī Jāṭah (the Lion King; Soun Diata Kéita). Though, Ibn Khaldūn does not mention whether Soun Diata Kéita was Muslim, he does state that the succeeding king, Mansā Wālī performed Ḥajj. The author of Masālik al-Abşār Fī Mamālīk al-Amşār described this new empire as the mightiest of the black Muslims dominions, the most vast in terms of land, the largest in terms of military, the wealthiest, the most beautiful, the most dominant over the enemy, and the most capable of distributing copious favors. At the height of its power, under the rule of Mansā Mūsā, this new dynasty would become so massive as to rival the kingdom of Ghana. Within the shadow of Malī’s just authority, which stretched to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, sat cities like Jenne, Gao, Niani, and Timbuktu.
Mansā Mūsā’s patronage of the culamā encouraged the growth of indigenous Muslim scholarship. The wealth of Islamic knowledge in Mālī can be highlighted by the following anecdote. On Mansā Mūsā’s return from ḥajj, there was an Arab scholar who accompanied him back to his empire and settled in Timbuktu, a place described in Tarīkh al-Sūdān as “the lodging place of the culamā and worshippers, the abode of the righteous and the ascetics”. This scholar found that the indigenous legal experts knew more than him, so he left for Fez, devoted himself to the study of law, and only then returned to settle once again in Timbuktu.
During that same pilgrimage to Makkah in the year 724 A.H. [circa 1324 C.E.], while in Egypt, Mansā Mūsā was asked how he acquired his empire. In reply, he mentioned that his predecessor did not believe the baḥr al-muḥīṭ (Atlantic Ocean) was uncrossable and had dispatched four hundred ships of men and supplies with an order not to return until they reached the other side. After a long time had passed, one ship returned, having been separated from the rest, whereupon Mansā Mūsā’s predecessor prepared two thousands ships and set out himself to cross the Atlantic Ocean. That Muslims had crossed the Atlantic long before Columbus, is also supported by the 1559 C.E. map of Ḥājī Aḥmad which details “surprisingly modern” shapes of North and South America.
Yesterday they were kings in their dwellings
And today they are slaves in the land of disbelief -Sāliḥ Bin Sharīf Ar-Randī Al-Andalūsī
Despite assurances given to the Muslims who stayed behind after the fall of Andalūs that they would be able to retain their faith, serious attempts were made to suppress Islām in Spain, one edict going so far as to make it an offense to wear clothes cleaner than one’s normal clothes on Friday, face the east and say ‘bismillāh’, tie the leg of any livestock before slaughtering it, or abstain from eating things that weren’t slaughtered Islamically, amongst a number of other practices that were considered to be habits of Muslims. In the face of this and other horrific acts of oppression, the Muslims tried to pass the dīn on to their children in secret, and some even managed to reach America as soldiers, explorers, and laborers, where they began to openly practice their Islām and spread it amongst the Native Americans. The Grand Inquisitor of Spain is reported to have “complained that Islām was being practiced openly in the Americas, especially by Moriscos [i.e. Andalusian Muslims forced to accept Catholicism, and the descendants of such Muslims].” This movement of Muslims into the Americas continued with the trans-Atlantic slave trade which forcefully brought a conservative estimate of somewhere between 3-6 million Muslims to the Americas, and just like the preceding groups, these Muslims, some of whom where huffādh and culamā, continued to practice, and attempted to pass on, Islām.
In 1835 C.E., during one of the most visible Muslim uprisings, hundreds of enslaved Africans dressed in white with turbans on their heads revolted and took over the streets of Bahia, Brazil. When they were finally defeated and an investigation was launched, it was discovered that they had created masājid and schools, and were secretly teaching Islām, Arabic, and the Qur’ān to their youth and others. Pierre Verger considered this and other revolts to be “the direct repercussion of the warring events in Africa”, and claimed that Shaykh Uthman Dan Fodio’s reformist movement “continued in Bahia in the form of slave revolts…”
In response to the barbarity perpetuated by the Atlantic slave trade in the power vacuum left by the fall of Songhay, the culamā became involved in combating the scourge of kings who were engaged in the slave trade. Roughly seventy-six years before the Emancipation Proclamation, two Tukulor culamā, Sulaymaaan Baal and Abdul-Qādir Kan, established an independent state in West Africa where the transportation of slaves was forbidden and slavery abolished.
One of the root causes of Shaykh Uthmān’s reform movements, and possibly that of al-Ḥajj cUmar Taal, was the trading of slaves. Shaykh Uthman Dan Fodio’s Wathīqah lists a number of items which he claims were unlawful by consensus. One of those items was: “To enslave free men among Muslims, whether they reside in the domain of Islam or in the domain of war.” The Shaykh’s poem, TabbanHakika, which his daughter, Shaykha Nana Asma’u translated to Hausa, also admonishes, “…do not enslave free men…”
A Qur’ān teacher from Guinea, Lamine Kebe, was kidnapped while traveling to purchase paper for his school where he taught between fifty-five to fifty-seven students. During interviews with an American of European descent, Lamine listed thirty books studied in the schools back home which covered topics such as Arabic grammar, fiqh, hadīth, and aqīdah. After three decades of slavery, he managed to return to West Africa in 1835.
Bilālī Muhammad, originally from Futa Jallon, was the leader of a community of Muslims on Georgia’s Sapello Island that included his wife, Fatima (Phoebe), and seven daughters. He is described as regularly wearing a fez and long coat; possessed a Qur’ān, dhikr beads, and a prayer mat, and wrote a 13 page manuscript in Arabic that reproduced parts of Ibn Abī Ẓayd al-Qayrawānī’s treatise on Mālikī fiqh: al-Risālah. During the War of 1812, Thomas Spalding, the owner of the plantation, gave Muhammad eighty muskets to defend the island from the British, while he hid somewhere else. It is reported that at this time, Bilali Muhammad had told his master that he would, “answer for every Negro of the true faith,” but not for the Christian slaves.
Imām Yunus/John Mohammed Bath who was described as always appearing “in public in the dress of a Moslem priest” was the leader of the Free Mandingo of Trinidad, a group of Muslims who had brought their freedom and established schools in Port of Spain. This group’s numbers were bolstered around 1815 by members of an island near Sapelo where another Muslim named Salih Bilālī resided. May Allāh have mercy on them and the countless others who held onto Islām despite the obstacles. May He keep their descendants firm in His dīn, and return those who have been led astray.
Aside from the Muslims forcibly brought to this country during this time, there were others who willingly came to America, and European Americans who were drawn to the light of Islām. Reverend Norman, a Methodist missionary to Constantinople whom Allāh blessed with hidāyah is one of them; he returned to America circa 1875 in order to spread Islām. Another example is the Reverend James Laurie Rodgers (d. 1902), may Allāh put light in his grave, the former pastor of Gonzales Baptist Church in Santa Cruz, California, who wrote a letter to an acquaintance in which he announced his acceptance of Islām and expressed concern that his burial should be conducted properly.
In 1888, President Cleveland’s Consular Representative to the Philippines, Alexander Russel Webb, his wife, and three children accepted Islām. Four years later, Muḥammad Alexander Russell Webb returned to America where he started the American Muslim Propagation Movement which at one point had a school, newspaper, and a number of study circles across the country; he was the only Muslim to give an official speech on Islam at the 1893 World Parliament of Religions in Chicago.
Commenting on the āyah of sūrahcĀlī Imrān in which Allāh mentions to the nearest meaning in English, “And those are the times which We rotate among the people,” Mufti Shafīc writes, “In this mortal world, the customary practice of Allah Almighty is to cause the days of hardship and ease, pain and comfort, suffering and peace [to] occur among people by turns. If, for some reason, a falsely motivated power succeeds in getting a short-lived upper hand, the group motivated by the truth should not lose heart and come to think that, from this point onwards, they are always doomed to nothing but defeat. Instead of taking this negative attitude, they should rather go find out the causes of that defeat, and once they have discovered those, they should take corrective measures and eliminate all possibilities of repeating those mistakes. In the end, the group motivated by the truth shall emerge as the ultimate victor.” The main reason behind studying history is to learn: where did past individuals acquire success so we can follow in their footsteps, and where did they go astray so we can avoid their mistakes. Ibn Mascūd, may Allāh be pleased with him, once said, “The fortunate individual is the one who takes a lesson from others.”
Abdullah Hakim Quick. Deeper Roots: Muslims in the Americas and the Caribbean Before Columbus to the Present. (Check location): Ta-Ha Publishers, 1996.
In the darkness, the sun rose
A cool breeze blew in the heat
And soft rain woke dead earth
Can you hear the cry of ahad
Lingering like his sweet scent
Here is the whispering of light
And blood soaked swords
Crouched about a blessed cave
This is the echo of the lion’s roar
Ringing in the mountain shade
In the darkness [of the pre-Islamic times], the sun [the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم] rose [was deputed];
A cool breeze blew [the prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was described as being as generous as the blowing wind] in the heat [of the desert];
And soft rain [the message of Islām] woke [revived] dead earth [humans lost in the darkness of ignorance];
Can you hear the cry of ahad [a reference to Bilāl رضي الله عنه who would utter this (i.e. ahad, the one Allāh) as he was dragged through the streets of Makkah];
Lingering like his sweet scent [the Prophet’s sweet scent would linger in the streets he walked through due to which people would know that he had passed that way];
Here is the whispering of light [the first revelationof Qur’ān];
And blood soaked swords [the polytheists who tracked the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه to the cave in which they were hiding on their way to Madinah];
Crouched around a blessed cave [referring to (1) the cave where revelation started, and (2) the cave that was covered by the spider during the hijrah];
This is the echo of the lion’s roar [a reference to the Lion of Allāh and His Messenger, Hamẓa رضي الله عنه who was martyred at the battle of Uḥud];
Ringing in the mountain shade [the shade of Mount Uḥud]
Realism with its emphasis on the ordinary, mundane life of the middle class and depiction of the individuals struggle for an ethical responses to life arose as an ‘-ism’ in “the period of time from the Civil War to the turn of the century” and may be considered a response to the rapid changes in society during that period.(Campbell) It is this idea of change and the question of how one should respond correctly to it that tinges Chesnutt’s The Marrow of Tradition. Chesnutt, who passed the bar in 1887, has written a story that is the quintessential expression of Realism.
Through his careful crafting of events and characters drawn from a historic incident, he manages to depict the horror of immoral responses and the monstrous consequences that ensue from the aforementioned. Set in the south, The Marrow of Tradition has as its main characters, not senators and congressman, but a doctor, a housewife, employees of a newspaper, etc. That is, it is set squarely in the mundane.These characters are then depicted going about their daily life. We are witness to a birth. We watch as Tom Delamere woos Clara, and fights his gambling addiction. We see Dr. William Miller navigating the strictures of an unjust law as he returns from the North. Chesnutt drags his reader through the quotidian routine of Southern life, deliberately building up his “individuals” before confronting them with “the struggle for ethical responses to life”.
The climax of this novel may be said to be the riot, a fictionalized version of the Wilmington Race Riot of 1898 in which a mob went on a rampage causing the death of between 6 to 100 people. The original riot, like the fictional one, is not squashed by the government. It runs its course under the raging power of ordinary citizens in the grip of unyielding prejudice. We then have three points of “life” in the novel. There is the first one, which is the riot itself, and then the response to the riot’s aftermath. The riot, itself, is a point in relation to the white Southerners who are faced with a choice between giving into the prejudices unleashed by Captain McBane and his co-conspirators or leaving the individual accountable for the individual. That is, they have a choice between seeing individuals as responsible for their own actions, or blaming an entire group. Chesnutt depicts them as having made the wrong choice at this critical point. They give into emotions and cast reason to the winds.
The second point is in relation to Dr. William Miller, who may be seen as a symbolic representative of a specific class of blacks, ones who have not had to bear the harsh sting of racism in the form of loved one lost and who may still hold a favorable opinion towards the whites. His test comes in his response to Major Carteret’s request to aid his child. Having just lost his own child to the blind fury of rampaging mob who share commonality with Major Carteret, should Dr. William rush to aid this child? Is it ethically wrong to run his back on an innocent babe in need? Chesnutt answers this question in a unique way, reinforcing the Realism in his novel. He, again, shows us a regular, middle class individual giving into his emotions.
Perhaps, had Chesnutt ended the novel there, on such a dark note, it would have been, at the very least, cathartic. However, still working within the framework set out by Realism, he adds a third point: the reunion of the sisters. Janet, having just lost her own child and having born humiliations at the hands of Clara, chooses to forgive her half-sister, and urges her husband, Dr. William, to save the child. Chesnutt anchors this response in reality, acknowledging the pain born by this woman while at the same time allowing her to take the high ground as he writes: “…that you may know that a woman may be foully wronged, and yet may have a heart to feel, even for one who has injured her…”(195) It may be worth noting that Chesnutt makes the character who takes the moral high ground, the one who makes the right and ethical decision, a woman. Perhaps, he is toying with Realism and stereotypical European ideas of womanhood in his time, or perhaps he is hinting that “masculine”, rather than chivalric, codes of revenge will tear the world in two, leaving its burnt husk for none to enjoy.
The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears was written by Theda Perdue and Michael D. Green,professors of history at University of North Carolina and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill respectively, and edited by Professor Colin G. Calloway of Dartmouth College. Both Perdue and Green have written other books. In the case of Perdue, she wroteCherokee Women, in which she “examine[d] the roles and responsibilities of Cherokee women during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,”(“Cherokee Women – University of Nebraska Press.”) and Sifters, a “rich collection of biographical essays on Native American women”(“Sifters”).Green is the author of The Politics of Indian Removal, a book about the Creek Indians that is “ based heavily on a wide variety of primary sources” (“Politics of Indian Removal – University of Nebraska Press.”). It sounds like a powerhouse combination, one author steeped in Cherokee history, the other apparently knowledgeable about the politics involved in the subject. One would have hoped to be informed through first-person narratives and vivacious prose, since this is not the authors first try at writing a book and you can only get better with practice.
The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears starts in the fourteenth century and ostensibly ends in 2005, though really it stops in the nineteenth century with a brief overview of events occurring after that point. Its focus is not on the horror of the Trail of Tears, as the title suggests, but on the politics and events leading up to this event. It utilizes a full 115 pages doing this, sparing the last 49 pages for the Trail of Tears and its aftermath. It does little to draw the reader’s attention, an appalling lapse when dealing with such an important topic, especially when it claims it is an “American story” and that “ we should make sure that it is a lesson well learned”(P. 164). If it is as important as they claim, and it is, they would have done well to make it more accessible and engaging. This is, after all, the history of the very foundation of this country and therefore the tale of where we all have come from, and, if we are not careful, the tale of where we are also heading. The point of looking into the past is not to merely spectate, it is to take admonition and learn lessons. However, as any teacher worth their salt will tell you those lessons must be made accessible to the students.
A dreary monologue on the land and its people frames the story, probably meant to draw the reader in by dropping them down in the middle of the Cherokee cosmology. It reeks of fluff, seeming more an attempt at showing the authors’ deep knowledge of the subject as opposed to the offering up of useful information. If it was meant to engender sympathy and humanize the victims portrayed later on, they would have been better served opening up with a firsthand account of the aftermath of the Trail of Tears, and then backing up to the causes leading up to what had been described. Or if they found it important to show the deep connection the Cherokee had to the land and a first-person narrative was not available, a reader might excuse them if they started off by writing “Farming in the Southeast probably began about 3000 B.C.E.”(Page. 8)
Although it does a good job at pointing out the injustices being heaped upon the Cherokees, it has an undercurrent that seems to whisper, ‘but it was their fault’. Take for instance the “group of Lower Town chiefs led by Doublehead”(p.37) who “ceded the last Cherokee hunting grounds.”(p. 37) One may well argue thatthis was just a “legacy perhaps of the individualistic ethos of warriors.” However, it should be noted that in doing so blame is shifted from those trying to get their grubby hands on the land in the first place. While it is a known fact that Africans didn’t get into massive boats bound for the New World without a little help from their fellow Africans, it is something altogether different to say that the European who bought those people did so with pure intentions and clean hands, having done nothing to instigate and help along the exchange of flesh for commodities. In a similar manner, to point out the greed of certain chiefs who stupidly sold off lands their people had lived on for centuries cannot so nicely sweep under the rug the fact that the people trying to get their hands on the land did not have ‘pure hearts’. It may have been far better to point out that the people buying the land at times purchased it from short-sighted chiefs. Wording is everything.
In the end, while the information contained in the book is interesting enough, pointing out the Cherokee’s consolidation in an attempt to fight off the encroaching Americans, the publishing of their own paper, one that had “a very salutary & happy effect” (P. 76), and the humorous way they adopted what suited them when it came to “civilization”, to get to it one must wade through prose as lively as a mummy, and paragraphs whose bare starkness assault the eye. When held up to the likes of Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Where White Men Fear to Tread, Mankiller, or Crow Dog this book withers. Where they paint a harsh picture of reality through vivid first-person narratives, and, yes, sometimes pictures that tugs at ones heart and makes one think, wonder, and gasp in horror, this book falls short. This could be excused as the constraints of an academic work more concerned with portraying facts, but its epilogue is a travesty. To end a tale of genocide and forced exile with the upbeat speech of some chief proclaiming, “We are not a people of the past. We are a people of the present, and for many centuries, we will be a people of the future,”(P. 164) smells like a large paint brush being brought down over the reader’s mind. “Forget what passed before,” it whispers. “They live on!”
It would be in the readers best interest to ask what kind of Nation survived into the present century? In what areas have they been completely cut off from their traditions? Where they were cut off was the loss compensated by a gain of, at least, equal proportions? How have their children’s worldview been shaped, and to what extent will that mold the future of this once proud tribe? Are they bitter, self-hating drunkards who root for the cowboys as they chase down Mexicans masquerading as Native Americans? Was this the best way to treat the themes of empowerment and victimization that it deals with?