بسم الله و كفى و الصلاة و السلام على سيدنا المصطفى ربنا يسر و لا تعسر و تمم بالخير و بك نستعين يا فتاح قال الله عز و جل يا يها الذين امنوا كتب عليكم الصيام كما كتب على الذين من قبلك لعلكم تتقون و قال لن ينال الله لحومها و لا دماؤها و لكن يناله التقوى منكم و قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كل أمتي يدخلون الجنة الا من ابى قالوا يا رسول الله و من ابى قال من اطاعني دخل الجنة و من عصاني فقد ابى
Allah Tacalā has loaned us various things which He has created and which He owns. So, He gave us life, health, a body; and these things are an amānah, a trust. He gave us these things for a purpose just as He gave us Ramaḍān for a purpose. There is a reason behind it. There is a wisdom to it.
Allāh mentions in the Qur’ān: (يا يها الذين امنوا كتب عليكم الصيام) “O you who have Imān [who have accepted with complete certitude the statement made by a prophet only out of one’s confidence and trust in him without the need for personal observation] fasting has been made compulsory upon you as it was made obligatory on those before you…”
And what is the purpose? So that you might get taqwā.
What is taqwā? cUmar Ibn Khaṭṭāb once asked Ubay Ibn Kacb what taqwā was, and Ubay answered his question with a question. He asked, “Did you ever do down a path with a lot of thorns on it?”
cUmar replied, “Yes.”
Ubay asked, “How did you do it?”
cUmar said, “I tucked up my clothes and was very careful.”
Ubay said, “That is taqwā.”
Or as Ḥasan al-Baṣrī put it, “It is to avoid what Allāh had ḥarām and do what He has made obligatory.”
Allāh describes these people in the Qur’ān in sūrah al-Baqarah when He says: (الم ذلك الكتاب لا ريب فيه هدى للمتقين) “Alif Lām Mīm, that book has no doubt in it…”
So here I want to highlight something. This sūrah starts with the Ḥurūf al-Muqaṭaca, the isolated letters. There are some sūrah that start with these isolated letters: alif lām mīm, ḥa mīm, ḥa mīm qaf ha ya cayn ṣad, qaf, nūn, ṣad. A person can have Arabic as their mother tongue or have studied Arabic very deeply, they will never be able to tell you what these letters mean. But when we recite them we get reward for it even thought we do not know what it means.
Our obedience to the laws of Allāh is not suspended on our knowing the benefit of that law, or it making sense to our intellect, our knowing what harm will be caused by disobedience. Which is not to say that there are no benefits or harm being warded off. In many places, Allāh and His Messenger have pointed out the reasoning and benefit behind this or that law.
For example, ṣalāh is established for the remembrance of Allāh; the person who remembers Allāh is like the living and the one who does not remember Allāh is like the dead. The Shayṭān leaves the one remembering Allāh alone, but when he finds them unmindful, he puts all sort of whispers in their head and a person will find themselves doing things they never dreamed in a thousand years that they would do such a thing. The laws of marriage and social interaction are there to establish justice. The ẓakah that we give is to remove the stinginess from the people who have money and to take care of the needs of the people who are poor. The laws of qiṣāṣ (the person who kills another person paying for his crime when it has evidence and a court has deemed them liable) is so that people don’t go around killing others with no consequence.
But just because we don’t understand the benefit or harm behind a law doesn’t mean we don’t comply. Shah Wali Allāh gives the example that there is a slave master and a slave. The slave is sick, so the master gets one of his special people to take care of the slave and give him medicine, treat the person. If the slave obeys, the master will be happy, they will be rewarded and they will get better. But if they don’t want to listen they will disobey their master, he will be angry at them, he will recompense them for that, and they will die of their sickness.
So, Allāh said: (الم ذلك الكتاب لا ريب فيه هدى للمتقين) “Alif Lām Mīm, that book has no doubt in it. It is a guide [and light] for the people of taqwā.”
Allāh specifies the people of taqwā with His guidance even thought it is a guidance for the entire creation to honor them, because these are the ones who had Imān in it and considered it the truth.
In another place Allāh says: (و من يتقى الله يجعله مخرجا و يرزقه من حيث لا يحتسب) “And whoever has the taqwā of Allāh, He will make a way out for them and provide for them from where one had no hope.”
The great tābicī al-Rabīc ibn Khuthaym explained this way out as a way out from everything that constricts a human.
And He says: (الأخلاء يومئذ بعضهم لبعض عدو الا المتقين) “Close friends on that day will be enemies of one another except for the people of taqwā.”
The love they had was for the sake of Allāh and will continue, but that which was for something else will turn into enmity on the Day of Judgement.
Allāh describes their state of affairs on the Day of Judgement: (و سيق الذين اتقوا ربهم الى الجنة زمرا) “The people who had taqwā of their Lord will be taken to Jannah [on transportation] in groups.” The anbiyā and the ṣiddiqīn with those like them. The shuhadah with those like them. The cUlamā with those like them.
(مثل الجنة التي وعد المتقون فيه انهر من ماء غير آسن و انهر من لبن لم يتغير طعمه و انهر من خمر لذة للشاربين و انهر من عسل مصفى) “The description of the Jannah which is promised to the people of taqwā [is the following]: in it are rivers of water that aren’t dirty [they haven’t changed; they are pure], rivers of milk whose taste hasn’t changed [they are extremely white, sweet and rich], rivers of khamr, intoxicants, pleasurable to the drinker [there is no headache; your mind isn’t lost, you don’t get a hangover], and rivers of honey.”
Once the Prophet said: (كل أمتي يدخلون الجنة الا من ابى) “All of my ummah will enter Jannah except those who refuse.”
The companions asked: (يا رسول الله و من ابى) “O Messenger of Allāh, who will refuse?” What fool would refuse to go into Jannah?!
He said: (من اطاعني دخل الجنة و من عصاني فقد ابى) “Whoever obeys me will enter jannah and whoever disobeys me has refused.”
The cUlamā say that the one who follows the book of Allāh and the Sunnah will enter Jannah and the one who follows their desires and leaves the path will enter Jahannam.